A BRIEF CHRONOLOGY OF THE OCCUPATION
[Note: any chronology will be necessarily incomplete. The following should be taken as a rough historical orientation, and not as a definitive narrative, certainly not as exhaustive. It was compiled from Ilan Pappe’s The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine, among other sources.]
1878 First Zionist agricultural colony in Palestine (Petah Tikva)
1882 25,000 Jewish immigrants begin to settle in Palestine, mainly from eastern Europe
1901 Jewish National Fund (JNF) set up to acquire land in Palestine for the World Zionist Organization (WZO); the land is to be used and worked solely by Jews.
1904-1914 40,000 Zionist immigrants arrive in Palestine; Jews now total 6% of the population
1917 Balfour Declaration
1918 End of Ottoman rule in Palestine
1923 British Mandate for Palestine officially comes into force
1924-28 67,000 Zionist immigrants come to Palestine, half of whom from Poland, raising Jewish population to 16%. Jews now own 4% of land.
1937 Peel Commission recommends partition of Palestine, with 33% of the country to become a Jewish state.
November 29, 1947 UN adopts Resolution 181 on partition of Palestine
1948 Declaration of Israel as the Jewish State; British leave Palestine.
April 3, 1949 Armistice – Israel and Arab states agree to armistice. Israel gained about 50% more territory than was originally allotted to it by the UN Partition Plan.
May, 1964 PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization) founded.
June 5-10,1967 6-day war. Israel destroys the Egyptian air force on the ground, conquers and occupies Sinai and Gaza, then conquers the West Bank from Jordan, and Golan Heights from Syria. UN resolution 242 called for Israeli withdrawal, establishment of peace
September, 1970 Black September in Jordan, PLO driven out to Lebanon.
July 17, 1981- Israel bombs PLO headquarters in Beirut
June 6, 1982- Israel launches Operation Peace for Galilee into southern Lebanon, PLO leadership is driven from Lebanon and relocates to Tunis.
September 1982- Sabra and Shatila massacre. Lebanese Phalangists massacre between 700-3500 Palestinians in the refugee camps of Sabra and Shatila, almost all civilians. While no Israeli soldiers were present in the fighting, Israeli Defense Minister, Ariel Sharon, was found to be indirectly responsible by negligence for the massacre by the Kahan Commission, and was asked to resign his position.
December 8, 1987- First Intifada begins. Violence, riots, general strikes, and civil disobedience campaigns by Palestinians spread across the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Israeli forces respond with tear gas, plastic bullets, and live ammunition.
Late 1980’s- Shaikh Ahmed Yassin creates Hamas from the Gaza wing of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood.
Sept. 13, 1993 Oslo Declaration of Principles – Israel and PLO agree to mutual recognition.
Sept 28, 1995 Oslo Interim Agreement signed. Palestinian Authority to be established.
Nov. 4, 1995 Israeli PM Yitzhak Rabin assassinated by right-wing Israeli fanatic Yigal Amir. Rabin is replaced by Shimon Peres
June, 1996 Right-Wing Likud leader Benjamin Netanyahu elected Prime Minister in Israel, replacing Shimon Peres.
Jan 18, 1997 Israel and Palestinians reach agreement on Israeli redeployment in the West-Bank city of Hebron
Sept. 28, 2000 Palestinians initiated riots after Israeli opposition leader Ariel Sharon visited the Temple Mount, which is also the location of the Haram as Sharif holy to Muslims. Start of Second Intifada.
Feb 6, 2001 Right-wing Likud leader Ariel Sharon elected Prime Minister in Israel replacing Ehud Barak and promising “peace and security.”
Jan 28, 2003 Elections in Israel give wide margin (40 seats) to right wing Likud party, returning PM Ariel Sharon for another term.
July 9, 2004 International court of Justice (ICJ) rules that the Israeli security barrier violates international law and must be torn down.
Nov 11, 2004 Palestinian Authority President Yasser Arafat dies.
Jan 9, 2005 Mahmoud Abbas elected President of the Palestinian National Authority.
Aug. 15, 2005 Disengagement – Israeli evacuation of Gaza settlements and four West Bank settlements began on August 15 and was completed August 24